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23 September 2021CNS infection – A devastating and deadly illness Infections of the central nervous system (CNS, which consists of the brain and the spinal cord) are severe and devastating diseases caused by pathogens, e.g., bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites capable of invading the CNS through different routes1.
9 September 2021The validation of diagnostic assays is a long procedure of inter-related processes that assures all steps and reagents are optimised. The scope of this procedure is to detect the analyte with accuracy and precision and identify the thresholds for each parameter. Three areas must be assessed: reproducibility (i.e., the test always shows the same result for the same sample), precision (i.e., the variability within results), and accuracy (i.e., the extent to which the results reflect the true situation). Once these are known, another three parameters need to be measured: scientific validity, analytical and clinical performance, guaranteeing data robustness and reliability. The comparisons are done against a widely approved older technique, called “golden standard”.
25 August 2021The Economic Burden of Disease The current COVID-19 pandemic made evident to all that Health is linked to Economy with tighter links than we might think. Health is not the power drainer of national budgets worldwide; it is also the stabilizer of economic growth and abundance. It is a reciprocal equation and is not only limited to humans. A deadly herd epidemic is enough to devastate a nation’s economy for years; an infected grooming product is enough to bring down big economic giants; a food poisoning can defame a large food chain and result in huge pay-outs.
25 August 2021Every year, about 48 million people are diagnosed with sepsis worldwide. 1 out of 5 people with sepsis die – and this represents 18 to 20% of annual global deaths. Almost half of these are children, with neonatal and pediatric sepsis accounting for 20 million cases. These are devastating numbers. The Asia-Pacific region has the highest incidence of sepsis in the world – estimates have revealed that up to 1600 per 100,000 people are afflicted with the disease. The death rate in these countries reach as high as 35%.
24 August 2021“Sepsis is the final common pathway to death for severe infectious diseases,” WHO (2020).1 Sepsis is responsible for almost 20% of all deaths worldwide. This was higher than deaths caused by cancer in 2020.3 Even if patients survive to live another day, they have risks of developing long-term consequences of neurological, psychiatric, and functional disabilities. Sepsis costs a total of $13,4 billion in 2018, more than twice its cost in 2012 as reported by US Medicare.6 Sepsis is undoubtedly still a complex challenge up till now.
18 August 2021Sepsis is an acute life-threatening condition characterized by organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated immune response to pathogens. It along with other bloodstream infections (BSI) represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality, affecting over 13 million people worldwide and killing 20 to 50% of severely affected patients, as well as a source of immense economic burden. What is even more concerning is the observed increase in the incidence of sepsis and other bloodstream infections that has occurred in the past several decades, attributed partly to the failure of empiric antibiotic regimens as a result of growing antimicrobial resistance (AMR).
2 August 2021Candida spp., commensal yeasts that colonize in our gut and on our skin could become lethal pathogens when they overgrow and disseminate into our bloodstream and deep-seated organs (lung, liver, spleen, kidneys, bone, or eye) and then cause invasive candidiasis (IC). Bloodstream infection (BSI), also called candidemia and internal organ infection are two common forms of IC which are the predominant fungal hospital-acquired infections.